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Indirect Instruction

Indirect instruction, which includes the following among its strategies:

case study,
cloze procedure,
concept attainment,
concept formation,
concept mapping,
reading for meaning, and
reflective study,

is a learning-centred teaching strategy. It promotes student involvement in the learning process and, in doing so, fosters true learning for understanding.



Because of its constructivist nature, indirect instruction has the advantage of making the student an active learner. Learning is something that is "done by" the student, not "done to" the student, as the teacher moves from the role of instructor to one of facilitator. Indirect instruction enhances creativity and helps to develop problem-solving skills. Its resource-based nature brings depth and breadth to the learning experience.


Because indirect instruction is learning-centred, it may take more class time to accomplish learning goals than when direct instruction is utilized. As facilitator, the teacher must give control of the learning to the students, which may initially be uncomfortable. There is also more of a challenge involved in ensuring that the students do accomplish the required learning objectives.

On-line Resources

Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Professional Practice: Chapter 2: Instructional Models, Strategies, Methods, And Skills (